Colombia has a lot of natural resources, including beautiful beaches, dramatic mountains, and lush rain forests, but it is known for its political unrest and the violent influence of powerful drug cartels. Despite a long history of democratic government, Colombia has one of the most rigidly stratified class systems in Latin America. Colombia is the only country in South America with coasts on both the Caribbean Sea.
Colombia Background and History The indigenous people of Tairona, Quimbaya, and Muisca were the original inhabitants of what is now referred to as the Colombian territory. The year marked the arrival of the Spanish and the commencement of a period of colonization that led to the creation of Viceroyalty of New Granada.
According to Manning and France , "the Viceroyalty of New Granada was one of the four Viceroyalties which framed Spanish government in eighteenth-century Spanish America. Colombia has, in fact, lacked political stability since it became independent. Colombia is approximately , square miles. As of January , the estimated population is 47,, people, about people per square mile. Colombia is divided into 32 departments and a capital district. The capital of Colombia is Bogota, which has a population of 7. Currently, one US dollar is equal to Since the equator runs though the southern …show more content….
Since the equator runs though the southern part of Colombia, it is considered to have a tropical climate. Due to small changes in temperature throughout the year, seasons are not characterized by temperature like they are in the United States, but rather by the amount of rainfall. In North Colombia, there is a dry season from December to March.
In South Colombia, there is a dry season in June and July. The area of Colombia along the Pacific Coast is rainy all year round.
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The official language of Colombia is Spanish. However, several native languages such as Romani, Wayuu, and Embura are still spoken in Colombia. Government The government of Colombia is set up similar to the United States. The Colombian Constitution of established their liberal democracy. Show More. Read More. Colombia Essay.
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Popular Essays. Such Latino-owned businesses often shaped the social and political relationships of their owners, who became important community leaders. The growth of Latino businesses during the early 20th century therefore demonstrated the role of Latinos not only as economic and cultural consumers, but also as engaged social and political actors. They fought anti—Latino discrimination, debated the merits of candidates for office, and organized various community events.
The immigrants among them also followed from afar the politics of their home countries, takings sides, for example, in the wars and revolutions that reshaped Latin American societies. Latinos formed several new social, political, and economic groups to engage these local and international issues, such as the AHA, LULAC, and their women auxiliaries. Latino—owned businesses, especially Spanish—language newspapers and radio stations, both shaped and reflected the activities of these groups.
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Print shops were some of the earliest Latino-owned businesses in the U. Lozano shipped La Prensa to the West and the Midwest, making it something like a national Spanish-language daily. Moreover, printing presses like Lozano's were precursors to Spanish-language radio and television media pioneered by individuals like San Antonio's Raoul Cortez and Tucson's Ernesto Portillo. The children of Latin American migrants who arrived between and came of age in the U.
New waves of migrants joined them, compelled to leave their home countries because of poor economic conditions caused by the global depression of the s, and because of civil wars aggravated by U. World War II was a critical turning point for U. Latinos and Latin American migrants alike. Latinos joined the U. These new programs enabled many of the returning servicemen to pursue higher education, move out of barrios , and move into areas of their cities that were more affluent.
Meanwhile, Mexican and Puerto Rican migrants met U. As during earlier periods, demographic changes within U. Latino communities led to new business and commercial practices. Many Latino-owned businesses established during the late 19th and early 20th centuries continued to serve Latino communities into the late 20th century. These businesses relied on Latino clientele that had lived in the U.
Nevertheless, they also served new consumer markets in the U. Small businesses remained the cornerstone of Latino entrepreneurial activity into the post-World War II period, and Latino consumers were still their targeted clients. During a period generally defined as an economic boom time, second or third generation Latinos—descendants of Latino families that had lived in the U. Entertainment industries established during the early 20th century grew along with U.
After the mass migration of Puerto Ricans to New York, the Forum Theater, which first opened its doors in to entertain Greek immigrant audiences, was renamed the Teatro Puerto Rico in It became a hangout for the city's Latino musicians. Eddie and Charlie Palmieri, whose parents owned the store, themselves became famous musicians. Latino-owned businesses during the midth century increasingly found markets for their goods and services beyond the Latino community, both because Latinos began to move out of barrios after World War II, and because of the increasing commoditization of all things Latino, especially food and music.
Goya Foods, for example, began in as a small, family-owned business that marketed its goods only within New York's Latino communities. Into the postwar period, non-Latino-owned chains including Safeway refused to sell Goya products. But under the leadership of Joseph A. Unanue, the U. La Preferida, a Mexican-owned food company established in Chicago during the late 19th century, also started as a small enterprise that then expanded to market its products nationally and internationally. New groups of Latin American migrants reinvigorated Latino business and commercial activities during the midth century.
Residents of the Dominican Republic fled their home country following the assassination of Rafael Trujillo, which unleashed more than a decade of social, political, and economic instability. Cubans fled their island following the Cuban Revolution through which Fidel Castro claimed power. As they settled in the U. Since the earliest years of their migration to New York, Illinois, and Florida, Cuban migrants—especially the first wave of exiles that arrived in the U. Because Castro had limited their ability to open businesses in Cuba, many entrepreneurs were eager to flee the island.
But even more than the supposed entrepreneurial orientation of early Cuban migrants, the Cold War policies of the U. The concentration of Cubans in Miami also facilitated what one scholar has called "the development of ethnic-based social capital," or "economic and social resources and support based on group affiliation. Restaurants, clothing stores, pharmacies, fruit stands, cafes, medical centers, and service-oriented businesses like locksmiths defined the business landscape of Miami's largest Cuban neighborhood. As the U. Latino population expanded dramatically after , so did the number of Latino-owned businesses.
The Immigration and Nationality Act replaced national origins quotas with a visa-granting system that extended opportunities for settlement to migrants from previously restricted countries, yet continued to limit their number. Because the approximately , available visas numbered less than the millions of migrants who sought work in the U.
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Latinos from all ethnic backgrounds, especially from the s onward, settled across the U. South, Northeast, and Great Plains. The overall growth of the Latino population during the late 19th century provided opportunities for profit both for longtime Latino business owners, and for new migrant entrepreneurs.
As Latino business and commercial activities increased, the U. Latinos as consumers and entrepreneurs. In , the U. The survey revealed that there were approximately 81, Mexican-owned businesses in the U. By , the number of Mexican-owned businesses had jumped by almost percent, to , The survey, because the Immigration Reform and Control Act had led many Latin American migrants to regularize their citizenship status, revealed another dramatic increase in Mexican business ownership, as the number of Mexican-owned businesses grew by 42 percent, to , A decade later, in , there were more than , Mexican-owned businesses in the U.
The increase in business ownership was as dramatic among other Latino groups as it was among Mexicans. In , according to the U. Census Bureau, there were , Latino-owned businesses, by there were ,, and by there were 1. By , Latinos owned 1. Acknowledging the astounding growth of Latino business and commercial activities, the U.