Research thesis on consumer behaviour

Appealing to customers by making a marketing campaign touching, emotional, or funny, are all examples of consumer psychology. Let us consider several examples of consumer psychology, both good and bad, to get a better understanding of how marketing manipulates feelings of customers. This campaign was tied to the Winter Olympics and promoted inclusion, diversity, and family values.

One of the most notable marketing failures of the s is, without a doubt, Pepsi commercial in The ad exploited unity, freedom, and diversity as a way to communicate to every customer, depicting a carbonated soda as an element equally important as protest, democracy, and equality. An attempt to manipulate customer feelings was so obvious that the ad was taken down after a severe backlash.

Generally, just about any essay includes 3 major parts, namely introduction, body paragraph, and conclusion. Whichever of the hot consumer behavior essay topics you choose and whatever length your essay is, you can use the following outline to construct a logically structured essay that will engage your readers and will reflect your topic to the full. Body paragraph — the number of body paragraphs can vary depending on essay length, while their general structure and elements are uniform.

Conclusion — summary of your essay. Restate your thesis statement with regard to the findings you write about in your body paragraphs. Here is a list of 7 unconventional sources of information about consumer behavior that will help you find out more about your chosen topic:. The topics below are designed to be versatile, interesting, topical, and truly compelling for essays, presentations, assignments, and projects. Walker on June 15, The conceptual framework is the foundation for this research. The figure above shows the conceptual framework established to study the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

However, only few researches have related to the topic of green purchase behaviour in Malaysia context. Apart from this, this study also assists marketers to better understand the potential of green market as well as the green purchase tendency of consumers. Normally, what was prefers by consumers now may not remain the same in the future due to dynamic change in the competitive business world. Therefore, continuously exploring in the green consumption pattern and preference of green purchase is a must for all green marketers who wish to improve and sustain their competitive advantage.

Cheah and Chen and Lau stated that the demand of green products in Malaysia market was increasingly. It is worth to discover what actually drives consumer from emerging market to buy green products and provide foresights to green marketers who wish to target in the market segment. However, a study conducted by Abdul Wahid et al. This state of affairs was known as value-action gap.

It means that consumers will only support and buy green products when their environmental awareness and consciousness align with their purchase behaviour Ajzen, Hence, a study proves that people who are aware of the environment do not necessarily behave in green manner Ooi et al, Therefore, researcher need to have a deep investigation on the factors influencing that caused the situation above and fully understanding what factors will mainly and exactly influence and affect consumers purchasing behaviour towards green products.

Furthermore, this research can assists and benefit marketers in promoting and increasing the awareness of working consumers towards green products.

It also can provide useful foresight to manufacturers who wish to target on working consumers. On the other hand, government would like to encourage more Malaysia entrepreneurs to participate in production, promotion and marketing of the green products in order to promote and increase green consumptions among Malaysian consumers. These enable consumers to found that green products would be better met their needs and wants in the near future.

Green consumption is a way to support for sustainable development which can provide a better and improved natural environmental to society. Consequently, this study can provide an overview of the green marketing to marketers who have interest to penetrate on it.

Primary Research in Consumer Behavior

It also provide beneficial to commercial sector that targeted on green consumers to have a better understand in the green market abilities and capabilities. The purpose to conducted literature review is to further define the term and the characteristics of the topic related in respectively. This chapter will end with conclusion of this chapter. Green consumers are defined as consumers who are concern, care and pay close attention to the environmental issues Soonthonsmai, Green consumers always have a clear mindset that they have the responsibility to the environmental protection and concern for the environment issues.

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Therefore, green consumers always purchase products that have less environmental impact. Green consumers also defined by Renfro as the people who support businesses that trade in the environmental friendly or green manner. Therefore, not only organic product will be buy by green consumers, those products that have eco-label or eco-friendly packing will always being chosen by green consumers.

In addition, corporates or companies such as Starbucks and The Body Shop are actively participate in the fair trade or environmental save programme. This practice will be always supported by green consumers. Table 1 show the different types of green consumers and their implications for the green marketers. For better understanding of the green consumers, it was essential to have some knowledge and understandable about the green products. Many researchers have defined green product in various definitions.

Ottman , Nimse, Vijayan, Kumar, and Varadarajan and Pavan defined green products as products that made from recyclable materials, least wastage or minimum packaging, less or non-toxic substance, and reduce the wastage of energy and water.


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Generally, green products also known as environmental friendly products or ecological products which enhance or protect the environment and brings less negative impact or harmful effect to environment as well as human. According to Baker and Ozaki , it was difficult to define environmentally sustainable products because there is unable to find a green product that is genuinely green or sustainable. All the goods or products that we purchase, use or throw away will have some negative impacts and consequences to the environment at its lifecycle stage. Therefore, Baker et al.


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Moreover, Schlegelmilch, Bohlen, and Diamantopoulos , Lee and Pavan had classified green products into several categories which are contain natural ingredients, original grown, do not pollute environment, not test on animals, contain recycled content, recyclable and reusable, and contain approved chemical. Examples of green products include organic agricultures or food, green lead-free electronics products, alternative fuel vehicles and hybrids, eco-friendly garments, and other green products.

Takafumi stated that green products can provide direct and indirect value to consumers. Direct value means the value will be immediate effect to consumers such as increase in safety or reduce in capital if consumers use green products. Whereas, indirect value means that consumers believe utilizing green products will benefits and protect the environment although they cannot determine an immediate benefits from utilizing the green products. While green marketing came into prominence in the late s and early s, it was first discussed much earlier. The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing" Henion and Kinnear a.

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The Impact of Packaging on Consumer Buying Behavior Dissertation

Since that time a number of other books on the topic have been published Coddington , and Ottman Polonsky, World-wide evidence indicates people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior accordingly. As a result there is a growing market for sustainable and socially responsible products and services. Environmental protection agency Green consumerism is often discussed as a form of 'pro-social' consumer behavior Wiener and Doesher, It may be viewed as a specific type of socially conscious Anderson, or socially responsible Antil, consumer behavior that involves an 'environmentalist' Schlossberg, perspective and may thus be called 'environmentally concerned consumption' Henion, A classic definition Henion, describes 'environmentally concerned consumers.

Business organizations tend to concern about environments issues due to several reasons such as environmental pressure, governmental pressure, competitive pressure, cost or profit issues Environmental protection agency Unfortunately, a majority of people believe that green marketing refers solely to the promotion or advertising of products with environmental characteristics.

Polonsky, and terms like Phosphate Free, Recyclable, Refillable, Ozone Friendly, and Environmentally Friendly are some of the things consumers most often associate with green marketing. Polonsky, While these terms are green marketing claims, in general green marketing is a much broader concept, one that can be applied to consumer goods, industrial goods and even services Roberts and Bacon, Hopes for green products also have been hurt by the perception that such products are of lower quality or don't really deliver on their environmental promises. And yet the news isn't all bad, as the growing number of people willing to pay a premium for green products - from organic foods to energy-efficient appliances - attests.

D'Souza et al.

Lehrstuhl für Marketing und Konsumforschung: Theses

Although public opinion polls consistently show that consumers would prefer to choose a green product over one that is less friendly to the environment when all other things are equal, those "other things" are rarely equal in the minds of consumers. Hackett, They must always keep in mind that consumers are unlikely to compromise on traditional product attributes, such as convenience, availability, price, quality and performance.

It's even more important to realize, however, that there is no single green-marketing strategy that is right for every company. Prothero,, and McDonagh, Despite the increasing eco-awareness in contemporary market economies, it is generally recognized that there are still considerable barriers to the diffusion of more ecologically oriented consumption styles. In lay discourse as well as in much of consumer research, these barriers are usually attributed to the motivational and practical complexity of green consumption Hackett, Increased use of Green Marketing is depending on five possible reasons.

Moreover, environmentally responsible behavior usually involves difficult motivational conflicts, arising from the fundamental incompatibility of environmental protection-related collective goals and individual consumers' personal or self-interested benefits and the resulting free-rider problem Wiener and Doesher, Public policymakers will continue to develop more efficient ways to regulate waste and pollution, and scientists will continue to gather information about the environmental risks from various substances or practices.

As they do, pricing structures will evolve that communicate even more accurate information to manufacturers and entrepreneurs about the true cost of commercial activities and the potential rewards from innovative solutions to environmental problems. This definition incorporates much of the traditional components of the marketing definition that is "All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants" Schlegelmilch et al, There are usually severe external constraints to green consumerism, arising from the cultural, infrastructural, political and economic circumstances in the markets and society McIntosh, A.

Both individual and industrial are becoming more concerned and aware about the natural environment. A study in Australia found that Owing to the conceptual and moral complexity of 'ecologically responsible consumer behavior' and to the perplexity of ecological information, different consumers have different conceptions of ecologically oriented consumer behavior and, thus, myriad ways of acting out their primary motivation for being green consumers Antil, These innovations aren't being pursued simply to reduce package waste. Prothero, Food manufacturers also want to improve food preservation to enhance the taste and freshness of their products.

The cost of the foods would be lower; consumers could enjoy the convenience of pre-sliced ingredients, and waste peelings Prothero, It can be assumed that firms marketing goods with environmental characteristics will have a competitive advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. There are numerous examples of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs.

Schwepker, and Cornwell, While governmental regulation is designed to give consumers the opportunity to make better decisions or to motivate them to be more environmentally responsible, there is difficulty in establishing policies that will address all environmental issues. Schwepker, and Cornwell, Hence, environment-friendly consumption may be characterized as highly a complex form of consumer behavior, both intellectually and morally as well as in practice.

Green can be defined and indicated in many different meanings. Green defined by Prem and Daleen as environmental and ecological awareness or consciousness, corporate social responsibility CSR , sustainable development, environmental protection or conservation, and new consumerism. Generally, companies or organizations that penetrated in green marketing will vigorously promote its environmental friendly policies and achievements to its target customers as well as potential target customers. It means that companies or organizations need to advertise and promote its products or services that composite with environmental or green characteristics like organic, environmental friendly and recycle that applied in producing consumer products or goods.

Besides, the difference between conventional marketing and green marketing lead to a variety of activities needed in green marketing which includes modification on the products, changes in the productions process, change in the products distribution, new style and decoration in products packaging, and change in the way of marketing communications. Table 2 explained the better way to understand the concept of green marketing. According to the Dagnoli , there were a growing number of people that prefer to purchase environmental friendly products will lead to increasingly in the number of green customers.


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  8. In other words, consumers now are more concern to business that play more environmental efforts and they will support companies that excellent in and master with their green marketing. However, green consumers not really will buy green products although they have plenty knowledge on green products Nik Abdul Rashid, , possess high awareness of environmental issues Abdul Wahid et al.

    This circumstance may due to some wrong green marketing practices implemented by companies which led to the failure of green marketing. Table 3 illustrates in details about the practices of green marketing that led to the failure of green marketing. Source: Peattie, K. Green marketing: Legend, myth, farce or prophesy? To seize the business opportunities of green marketing trend, many companies blindly follow the trend by adding some green characteristic into the original products in order to boost their sales without conducts a thoroughly research and plenty knowledge on concept of green marketing and green consumerism.

    Moreover, some companies who implements green harvesting practices will become enthusiastic to the environment only when this practice could led to cost savings such as package reductions Peattie et al. In addition, according to Peattie et al. To avoid misuse on marketing practices, marketing practitioners should thoroughly understand the green marketing concept in order to help them select and implement the right green marketing practices which in return can bring a lot of benefits to companies.

    Besides, there are some international companies that implement their green practices and strategies successfully in green marketing. A new label that draws up the shoes consisted of organic, recycled, and renewable materials contents was introduced to market in Therefore, Timberland was successfully improved the environment Petrecca et al. In additions, according to Petrecca et al.