Essays on islam and indian history

There are more than , active mosques in India, which is higher than any other country, including the Muslim world. The mosque is basically an open courtyard surrounded by a pillared verandah, crowned off with a dome. A mihrab indicates the direction of the qibla for prayer. Towards the right of the mihrab stands the minbar or pulpit from where the Imam presides over the proceedings.

An elevated platform, usually a minaret from where the Faithful are summoned to attend prayers is an invariable part of a mosque. Large mosques where the faithful assemble for the Friday prayers are called the Jama Masjids. The tomb or maqbara could range from being a simple affair Aurangazeb's grave to an awesome structure enveloped in grandeur Taj Mahal. The tomb usually consists of a solitary compartment or tomb chamber known as the huzrah in whose centre is the cenotaph or zarih.


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This entire structure is covered with an elaborate dome. In the underground chamber lies the mortuary or the maqbara , in which the corpse is buried in a grave or qabr. Smaller tombs may have a mihrab , although larger mausoleums have a separate mosque located at a distance from the main tomb. Normally the whole tomb complex or rauza is surrounded by an enclosure. The tomb of a Muslim saint is called a dargah.

The Religion Of Islam And Islam

Almost all Islamic monuments were subjected to free use of verses from the Quran and a great amount of time was spent in carving out minute details on walls, ceilings, pillars and domes. Islamic architecture in India can be classified into three sections: Delhi or the imperial style to CE ; the provincial style, encompassing the surrounding areas like Ahmedabad , Jaunpur and the Deccan ; and the Mughal architecture style to CE.

Certain civil matters of jurisdiction for Muslims such as marriage, inheritance and waqf properties are governed by the Muslim Personal Law, [] which was developed during British rule and subsequently became part of independent India with some amendments. The Indian constitution provides equal rights to all citizens irrespective of their religion. Article 44 of the constitution recommends a uniform civil code.

However, attempts by successive political leadership in the country to integrate Indian society under common civil code is strongly resisted and is viewed by Indian Muslims as an attempt to dilute the cultural identity of the minority groups of the country. Shariat Application Act in India. The Sachar Committee was asked to report about the condition of Muslims in India in Almost all the recommendations of the Sachar Committee have been implemented.

Note: Above laws are not applicable in the state of Goa. The Goa civil code , also called the Goa Family Law, is the set of civil laws that governs the residents of the Indian state of Goa. In India, as a whole, there are religion-specific civil codes that separately govern adherents of different religions. Above laws are also not applicable to Muslims throughout India who had civil marriage under the Special Marriage Act, The Citizenship Amendment Bill, was proposed for the changes in the citizenship and immigration norms of the country by relaxing the requirements for Indian citizenship.

Delhi Sultanate - History of India in English - Indian History - History of India Documentary

The applicability of the amendments are debated in news as it is on religious lines excluding Muslims. India's Constitution and Parliament have protected the rights of Muslims but, according to some sources, [] [] [] there has been a growth in 'climate of fear' and 'targeting of dissenters' under the Bharatiya Janata Party , Modi ministry , affecting the feelings of security and tolerance amongst Indian Muslims.

Ripe for colonialism

However, these allegations are not universally shared. Considerable controversy exists both in scholarly and public opinion about the conversions to Islam typically represented by the following schools of thought: []. Embedded within this lies the concept of Islam as a foreign imposition and Hinduism being a natural condition of the natives who resisted, resulting in the failure of the project to Islamize the Indian subcontinent and is highly embroiled within the politics of the partition and communalism in India.

Historians such as Will Durant contend that Islam was spread through violence. Disputers of the "conversion by the sword theory" point to the presence of the large Muslim communities found in Southern India, Sri Lanka, Western Burma, Bangladesh, Southern Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia coupled with the distinctive lack of equivalent Muslim communities around the heartland of historical Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent as refutation to the "conversion by the sword theory".


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  • Essay on Islam Religion | Bartleby.
  • The legacy of the Muslim conquest of South Asia is a hotly debated issue and argued even today. Muslim invaders were not all simply raiders. Later rulers fought on to win kingdoms and stayed to create new ruling dynasties. The practices of these new rulers and their subsequent heirs some of whom were born of Hindu wives varied considerably.

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    Islam Essay | Bartleby

    While some were uniformly hated, others developed a popular following. According to the memoirs of Ibn Battuta who travelled through Delhi in the 14th century, one of the previous sultans had been especially brutal and was deeply hated by Delhi's population, Batuta's memoirs also indicate that Muslims from the Arab world, Persia and Anatolia were often favoured with important posts at the royal courts suggesting that locals may have played a somewhat subordinate role in the Delhi administration.

    The term "Turk" was commonly used to refer to their higher social status. Rizvi The Wonder That Was India — II , however points to Muhammad bin Tughluq as not only encouraging locals but promoting artisan groups such as cooks, barbers and gardeners to high administrative posts.

    In his reign, it is likely that conversions to Islam took place as a means of seeking greater social mobility and improved social standing. Numerous temples were destroyed by Muslim conquerors. Eaton lists a total of 80 temples that were desecrated by Muslim conquerors, [] but notes this was not unusual in medieval India where numerous temples were also desecrated by Hindu and Buddhist kings against rival Indian kingdoms during conflicts between devotees of different Hindu deities, and between Hindus, Buddhists and Jains.

    Lal , in his book Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India , claimed that between and , the Indian population decreased by 30 million, [] but stated his estimates were tentative and did not claim any finality. Durand and Colin McEvedy also show there was population increase in India between and The Sunnis and Shia are the biggest Muslim groups by denomination.

    Although the two groups remain cordial, there have been instances of conflict between the two groups especially in the city of Lucknow. The conflict between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent has a complex history which can be said to have begun with the Umayyad Caliphate 's invasion of Sindh in The persecution of Hindus during the Islamic expansion in India during the medieval period was characterised by destruction of temples, often illustrated by historians by the repeated destruction of the Hindu Temple at Somnath [] [] and the anti-Hindu practices of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

    The aftermath of the Partition of India in saw large scale sectarian strife and bloodshed throughout the nation. Since then, India has witnessed sporadic large-scale violence sparked by underlying tensions between sections of the Hindu and Muslim communities. These include Gujarat riots , Bhiwandi riots , Nellie massacre , and the Bhagalpur violence. These conflicts stem in part from the ideologies of Hindu nationalism and Islamic extremism. Since independence, India has always maintained a constitutional commitment to secularism.

    The sense of communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims in the post-partition period was compromised greatly by the razing of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya. This was followed by tit for tat violence by Muslim and Hindu fundamentalists throughout the country, giving rise to the Bombay riots and the Bombay bombings.

    Contemporary times

    During the eruption of militancy in the s, following persecution and threats by radical Islamists and militants, the native Kashmiri Hindus were forced into an exodus from Kashmir , a Muslim-majority region in Northern India. One of the most violent events in recent times took place during the Gujarat riots in , where it is estimated one thousand people were killed, most allegedly Muslim. Some sources claim there were approximately 2, Muslim deaths.

    Gujarat police claimed that the incident was a planned act carried out by extremist Muslims in the region against the Hindu pilgrims. The Bannerjee commission appointed to investigate this finding declared that the fire was an accident. In , several Indian school textbooks were scrapped by the National Council of Educational Research and Training after they were found to be loaded with anti-Muslim prejudice. The NCERT argued that the books were "written by scholars hand-picked by the previous Hindu nationalist administration".

    According to The Guardian , the textbooks depicted India's past Muslim rulers "as barbarous invaders and the medieval period as a dark age of Islamic colonial rule which snuffed out the glories of the Hindu empire that preceded it". In the Deganga riots , rioting began on 6 September , when an Islamist mob resorted to arson and violence on the Hindu neighborhoods of Deganga , Kartikpur and Beliaghata under the Deganga police station area.

    The violence began late in the evening and continued throughout the night into the next morning.


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    At least 77 people died [] and , people were displaced in the Assam violence between indigenous Bodos and East Bengal rooted Muslims. Sikhism emerged in the Punjab during the Mughal period. Conflict between early Sikhs and the Muslim power center at Delhi reached an early high point in when Guru Arjan , the fifth guru of the Sikhs, was tortured and killed by Jahangir, the Mughal emperor. After the death of the fifth beloved Guru his son had taken his spot Guru Hargobind who basically made the Sikhs a warrior religion. Guru ji was the first to defeat the Mughal empire in a battle which had taken place in present Sri Hargobindpur in Gurdaspur [] After this point the Sikhs were forced to organise themselves militarily for their protection.

    Later in the 16th century, Tegh Bahadur became guru in and led the Sikhs until Teg Bahadur was executed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for helping to protect Hindus, after a delegation of Kashmiri Pandits came to him for help when the Emperor condemned them to death for failing to convert to Islam. This is an early example which illustrates how the Hindu-Muslim conflict and the Muslim-Sikh conflicts are connected. After which Guru Gobind Singh and the Sikhs helped the next successor of the throne of India to rise who was Bahadur Shah Zafar for certain period of time good relations were maintained somewhat like they were in Akbar 's time until disputes arose again.

    The Mughal period saw various invaders coming into India through Punjab with which they would loot and severely plunder. In , the Khalsa was founded by Guru Gobind Singh , the last guru. A former ascetic was charged by Gobind Singh with the duty of punishing those who had persecuted the Sikhs. After the guru's death, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur became the leader of the Sikh army and was responsible for several attacks on the Mughal empire. He was executed by the emperor Jahandar Shah after refusing the offer of a pardon if he converted to Islam.

    Massive population exchanges took place during the Partition of India in , and the British Indian province of Punjab was divided into two parts, and the western parts were given to the Dominion of Pakistan , while the eastern parts were given to the Union of India. The newly formed governments were completely unequipped to deal with migrations of such staggering magnitude, and massive violence and slaughter occurred on both sides of the border. Estimates of the number of deaths range around roughly ,, with low estimates at , and high estimates at 1,, Tens of thousands of Muslims are living with a disguised identity as Sikhs since the confessional cleansing during the Partition of India.

    In spite of the fact that there have been relatively fewer conflicts between Muslims and Christians in India in comparison to those between Muslims and Hindus, or Muslims and Sikhs, the relationship between Muslims and Christians have also been occasionally turbulent. With the advent of European colonialism in India with the demise of Mughal empire beginning from the 18th century, Christians were persecuted in some Muslim ruled princely states in India.

    Perhaps the most infamous acts of anti-Christian persecution by Muslims was committed by Tipu Sultan , the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore against the Mangalorean Catholics. Tippu was widely reputed to be anti-Christian. The captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Srirangapatna , which began on 24 February and ended on 4 May , remains the most disconsolate memory in their history. In there was a social boycott by the Buddhists of the Muslims of Leh district. The boycott remained in force till Relations between the Buddhists and Muslims in Leh improved after the lifting of the boycott, although suspicions remained.

    There are several well established Muslim institutions in India. Here is a list of reputed institutions established by Muslims in India. Sufism is a mystical dimension of Islam, often complementary with the legalistic path of the sharia had a profound impact on the growth of Islam in India. A Sufi attains a direct vision of oneness with God, often on the edges of orthodox behaviour, and can thus become a Pir living saint who may take on disciples murids and set up a spiritual lineage that can last for generations.

    Orders of Sufis became important in India during the thirteenth century following the ministry of Moinuddin Chishti — , who settled in Ajmer and attracted large numbers of converts to Islam because of his holiness. His Chishti Order went on to become the most influential Sufi lineage in India, although other orders from Central Asia and Southwest Asia also reached India and played a major role in the spread of Islam.

    A much-maligned Mughal

    In this way, they created a large literature in regional languages that embedded Islamic culture deeply into older South Asian traditions. The government of India subsidises the cost of the airfare for Hajj pilgrims. All pilgrims travel on Air India.