The result was that our educational institutions and universities, Instead of being citadels of learning and enlightenment, became dens of unrest and frustration. Our students became irresponsible and directionless mob, out to destroy the very fabric of society. The first policy document on education was adopted in , by the Government after Independence. The National Education Policy, aimed to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration. It called for radical reconstruction of the educational system and for greater attention to science and technology, the cultivation of moral values and closer relation between education and the life of the people.
However, even the Government admits that the general formulations incorporated in the policy did not get translated into a detailed strategy of implementation. Some achievements since listed by the Government are: a acceptance of a common structure of education throughout the country and the introduction of the 10 plus 2 plus 3 system by most States; b laying down of common system of studies for boys and girls; c incorporation of science and mathematics as compulsory subjects ; d restructuring of the courses at under-graduate level; e setting up of centres of advanced studies for post-graduate education and research.
Education in India, says the new education policy document, stands at cross-roads today. Neither normal expansion nor the existing pace and nature of improvement can meet the needs of the situation. The catalytic action of education in the complex and dynamic process of our country needs to be planned meticulouslyand executed with great sensitivity life in the coming decades, it points out, is likely to bring new tensions together with unprecedented opportunities.
The coming generations should have the ability to internalize new ideas constantly and creatively. They have to be imbued with a strong commitment to human values and social justice. All these call for better education, stresses the document. The new Education Policy, calls for a National System of Education in which all students, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex, should have access to education of a comparable quality. The system will be based on a national curricular framework which contains a common core along with other components that are flexible.
In higher education, technical education in particular, steps will be taken to facilitate inter regional mobility by providing equal access to every Indian of requisite merit, regardless of his origins. The central focus of the policy in the educational development of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in their equalization with the non-SC and ST population at all stages and levels of education, in all areas and in all the four dimensions rural male, rural female, urban male and urban female.
The policy also aims to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the general community as equal partners, to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence. The policy outlines a vast programme of adult and continuing education through establishing centers of continuing education in rural and urban areas; post-secondary education institution; wider promotion of books, etc. The new thrust in elementary education emphasizes two aspects; 1 universal enrolment and universal retention of children up to 14 years of age; and 2 a substantial improvement in the quality of education.
The policy pledges to provide essential facilities in primary schools, including at least two reasonable large rooms usable in all weathers, and necessary toys, blackboards, maps, charts and other learning material. At least two teachers, one of them a woman, should be there in every school, the number increasing to one teacher per class as early as possible.
The contribution of rural India towards the economic development is not hidden from any of us. Earlier the people used to correlate rural development with agricultural development and thus focus was only on the increased agricultural production. But with the changing time, this misbelieve has also changed.
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Today the concept of rural development is fundamentally different than it was used to be 2 or 3 decades ago. Now rural development includes the development of improving the quality of life of rural people.
It constitutes an improvement in their health and nutrition, education, safe and healthy environment, fairness in income distribution and no discrimination in gender. The continuous growth of the Indian economy forces the Indian government to accelerate the process of developing all the branches of the Indian education system. As more than half of the population in India lives in villages, therefore the education system in a rural area also plays a significant contribution to the growth of the economy.
Education - Primary Right :
Education has a desirable controlling influence over the development of the rural individual, family, community, and society that leads to reduced poverty and controlled unemployment. Functions of education include imparting social change, making rural people aware of their rights, improving the individual standard of living, providing employment and income opportunities to rural people and so on. The present system of education in India was introduced by the British in the 20th century.
The system so given has a western style and content, ignoring traditional structures and so has declined. After independence, the Central Government has taken the responsibility of technical and higher education. National Sample Survey Office NSSO survey has pegged literacy rate in the rural areas at 71 percent and 86 percent in the urban areas in the year As per the NSSO survey. As per the NSSO survey Literacy among the age group of 7 years and above Male literacy rate percent, female literacy rate percent. Adult literacy age 15 years and above rate: It was around 71 percent.
In rural areas- 64 percent, urban areas- 84 percent. The education level of graduation and above: It was 4. While in urban areas, it was 17 percent of males. Primary level students: 72 percent in rural areas and 31 percent in urban areas. Upper primary level: 76 per in rural areas and38 percent in urban areas. Rural education condition in India has been still improving.
An Essay on Education - Analysis of Education System in India. What we need to modify?
However, the rural school has to face a lot of suffering. Schools in rural areas are promoted to raise the level of education and literacy in rural India. The main aim of running these types of schools in India is to increase the rates of literacy in rural areas. And schools in rural areas are inadequate and often equivalent to being non-existent.
According to Just Indian Schools, the conditions of rural education in India is improving steadily and the government is also providing full support and providing with many initiatives. The fee structure in these schools is also very low so that every child can study and afford it. There are many initiatives taken by the government, but they are not implemented in the schools, so the present scenario remains the same.
Though there are very few schools in rural areas, children, and their parents are showing interest and availing school facilities in these remote locations. Children have to walk miles to reach their school. Rural schools pay special attention to children in these locations so that each child gets an equal and important opportunity. They promote reading and writing and enhanced basic education.
These schools also provide study material to every student apart from, meals during school hours, uniforms etc. Rural village schools also have implemented library system, which provides books, newspapers, and magazine to children. They not only provide science kits and equipment for hands-on-learning but also notebooks, textbooks, and pencils to poor children.
Apart from that they also give scholarships to deserving students regularly, who wish to study ahead.
They create community awareness, about the need for education and world literacy. Many indirect benefits of a basic rural education include poverty reduction, disease control, enhanced employment opportunities and increasing rate of literacy. Apart from that they also provide Value Education and Computer Education.
The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach. All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information. The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the s. Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student.
Later, boards were established in some of the states. All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India.
This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution. But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step. The announcements are; a To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP.
The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory.checkout.midtrans.com/chicos-solteros-pradejn.php
The challenge of education in India by Anita Yesale
As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject —that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the Government of India GoI was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in so that education now comes in the so-called concurrent list.
That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of Education CABE , set up in , continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes. These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states' departments of education. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.
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The National Policy on Education, and the Programme of Action POA envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children below 14 years before the 21st Century. The expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0. The school system in India has four levels: lower primary age 6 to 10 , upper primary 11 and 12 , high 13 to 15 and higher secondary 17 and Students have to learn a common curriculum largely except for regional changes in mother tongue till the end of high school. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level.
Students throughout the country have to learn three languages namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below.